How to make your Wildlife Sightings impactful in NSW

How to make your wildlife sightings impactful in NSW

Since becoming interested and involved in wildlife ecology 4 years ago I immediately realised that there is a distinct lack of reporting done by everyday people, Naturalists and all interested in Wildlife Watching and Wildlife Photography. Whilst this might seem like an insignificant issue compared to Climate Change, Habitat Loss, Threatened Species and Feral Species however the lack of reporting in fact influences the decisions we make regarding the aforementioned issues.

Rainforest GN

Habitat of the threatened Davies’ Tree Frog, Noisy Scrubbird, Greater Sooty Owl, Spot-tailed Quoll, Broad Toothed Mouse and Yellow-Bellied Glider

The issues with a lack of records

  1. Threatened species can get destroyed by urban development
  2. It can result in local extinctions going un-noticed
  3. It alters land management strategies in a potentially inappropriate manner

The fundamental issue with not reporting your sightings is that if a Threatened species lives in an area but has not been detected or recorded by humans it can become locally extinct. However, If you report this sighting it is more difficult for the land to be developed and your sighting could save that species and all others within the area. Additionally, reported sightings of any animal influence land management decisions, no matter how common the species is.

The final (and purely selfish) benefit of current and regular records is that it allows everyone to know where to find their “target species”. Whilst this isn’t the key benefit, it is great as when people are actively out looking for animals that they are targeting, other species are inevitably detected further enhancing our knowledge of wildlife.

How to make your sightings count

The most powerful way to make your sightings worthwhile is to report them to NSW Bionet ( BioNet is a portal for accessing and submitting government-held information about plants and animals in NSW. Before a large-scale development occurs developers are legally required to access Bionet NSW data to determine whether Threatened Species are present on the land and if they are there are further actions required to be taken. Anyone can do it so to get started visit, it is super easy and definitely worth doing!!


The Glossy Black Cockatoo is a Threatened Species which can be saved from development by the upload of sightings into the Bionet database. I found this one (and 4 more) feeding recently in Ku-ring-gai Chase NP.

Ultimately, across NSW wildlife enthusiasts of all kinds are engaged, formally or informally, in spotting wildlife, however most of this valuable data is lost, as it is not translated into records, thus I encourage you to give back to the environment and make your sightings count by submitting your sightings to Bionet NSW.

If you have any questions or comment email me at

Jayden Walsh

Cassowaries need to be helped, not feared!

Who said dinosaurs went extinct? The Southern Cassowary certainly doesn’t think so…


Deep in the rainforests – and occasionally patrolling the beaches, roads and campgrounds of Far North Queensland – an ancient creature struts its stuff. A tall casque sits atop its head whilst two wattles droop from it’s neck – yes, it’s a Southern Cassowary. The Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuaris) is a large flightless bird found in North Queensland and Papua New Guinea. They forage on the Forest Floor for fruits, of which some can only be digested by the Southern Cassowary; hence the importance of protecting this federally listed endangered species.

The cassowary has coarse hair-like feathers which give it a glossy and rough appearance when seen close up. Its wing stubs carry a small number of long, modified quills which curve around the body and appear rather imposing but serve little function other than decoration. Each heavy, well-muscled leg has three toes, with the inside toe bearing a large 12cm long dagger-shaped claw  used for fighting other birds, not humans as we have been led to believe. Newly-hatched chicks are striped dark brown and creamy white for approximately 6 months then the stripes fade and the plumage changes to plain brown. As the young mature, the plumage darkens, the wattles and casque develop and the skin colour on the neck and wattles brighten.

There are 5 factors in the decline in numbers of the Southern Cassowary, that have made it an Endangered species:

  • Ongoing loss of habitat through clearing for residential development and agricultural expansion
  • Fragmented habitat – ever decreasing forest size (especially from roads and subdivisions)
  • Car strikes – road kills are the number one cause of adult cassowary deaths
  • Feral pigs – impact on their habitat and eat eggs
  • Dogs – attack cassowaries and can often cause death because they are especially aggressive to chicks and juveniles. This also leads to a dislike of Cassowaries by civilians as it encourages a mentality of ‘the Cassowary attacked my poor dog’ regardless of the truth of the situation in which the dog most likely initiated conflict and the Cassowary is a native Endangered species whilst dogs are declared a pest when feral.



Unfortunately the media does not portray any species of Cassowary in a positive light but as I discovered on my trip to Cape York, the Southern Cassowary is one of the most curious, inquisitive and pleasant birds to share company with, and certainly not deserving of the reputation it has been given. The only time to exhibit extreme caution around the Southern Cassowary is when the Male is taking care of young chicks and even in this situation if you give them room to move you will be fine. If you do stumble across one with young, and it does get defensive, the best option is to hide behind an object, like a tree, or try to appear taller than you are by putting your hands in the air.

I encourage you to slow down when driving through the bush no matter where you are in Australia but also treat yourself and go looking for Cassowary this year, if you’d like to see Southern Cassowary in the wild feel free to contact us on Facebook or at and we can recommend locations to see these ancient and misunderstood birds.

Manly Vale Public School upgrade threatens local extinction of endangered species

The cover image is copyright of Stephen Mahony and this article is written by Chad Beranek


Manly Vale Public school is praised as being an innovative pioneer in regards to teaching their students the importance of the environment and sustainability. One of the reasons this school is able to to achieve such success in this area is because of its location. The school is located next to well kept remnant bushland which forms a linkage to Manly Dam Reserve which has further linkages that reach Garigal National Park and beyond. This unique setting allows students of Manly Vale Public School to immerse with the Australian wilderness and learn about the plants and animals which dwell there. This is a crucially important experience for children to have during their development. This enables them to form an early respect and understanding of the natural heritage of Australia, as well as a toolkit for survival and an early embodiment of adventure and joy of the wilderness.

Despite boasting being one of the few school in Sydney lucky enough to be surrounded by pristine Sydney sandstone woodland and being the forefront in primary education of sustainability, the department of education have decided to expand the school in a very unsustainable manner. Much of the  4.37 hectares of bushland proposed for “removal” will be on Department of Education land including the schools own “nature area”- used to teach generations of children about the environment. Clearing for the Asset Protection Zone requires compulsory acquisition of land into  Condover and Manly Dam Reserves. The latter being a living memorial to those who served in two world wars.

Now lets make this clear, I’m not against the expansion. I want this school to expand so it’s environmental education can reach more students. However, it can expand it’s facilities in a much more sustainable way. In this article I will describe what animals and plants of interest call this bushland-to-be-developed home and the inherent threats these species face.

The threatened Red-crowned Toadlet (Pseudophryne australis) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

The threatened Red-crowned Toadlet (Pseudophryne australis) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

The threatened Red-crowned Toadlet is the first in line to be completely wiped out from this area if this development proceeds. As I have described in the Backyard Conservation Fact Sheet for this species, the Red-crowned Toadlet is vulnerable to development which occurs on the ridge top above where they live. This is because Red-crowned Toadlets are always found on sandstone slopes in trickling tributaries and soaks. Development which occurs on the ridge top causes altered storm water regimes which always causes surplus of water discharges down these trickles and soaks which end up washing away the nests of these rare frogs.

Red-crowned Toadlets are usually only found in large reserves and national parks, so the fact that they are occurring in this comparatively small tract of bush next to Manly Vale Public School is a testament to how healthy and biodiverse this bush patch is. The proposed expansion of the school sees buildings to be constructed on the ridge above the known Red-crowned Toadlets populations and alarmingly close. These population will unfortunately be entirely extirpated from this bushland if the proposed development proceeds.

Eastern Pigmy Possum (Cercartetus nanus)

As with the Red-crowned Toadlets, the Eastern Pygmy Possum also faces local extinction if the current proposal is allowed to go through. The Eastern Pygmy Possum (the one depicted in the cover photo) is one of the smallest possums in the world and is just an adorable animal. Unfortunately often comes out second best in the face of urban expansion. In the case of Manly Vale, the remnant bushland next to the school appears to contain one of the most urban situated populations, which just further highlights how valuable and diverse this relatively small strip of bushland is. Experts have said that this population appears to be the remnant stronghold for pygmy possums in Manly Vale. Any further encroachment can and will eliminate pygmy possums from this area and surrounding areas.

Powerful Owl chick

Powerful Owl chick. These birds threatened and naturally rare. They are very picky in choosing their nesting hollow. Cutting down a chosen nesting tree will eliminate them from the surrounding landscape.

There are many more animals at threat  from the proposed expansion, including Bandicoots, Edichnas and Wallabies, but I have just touched on the threatened rare species. There has even been Powerful Owls found nesting on site. In addition to the threatened animals that face local extinction, there are also potential for threatened plants occurring on this site which also face annihilation. The plants include the Sunshine Wattle (Acacia terminalis spp. terminalis), Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora, Seaforth Mintbush (Prostanthera marifolia), and  Tetratheca glandulosa. This surprisingly diverse little bush hosts a wide array of many other  plants which once again highlight just how biodiverse it is. Thanks can be given to the hard working bush regeneration volunteers of this area which have labored thousands of hours keeping this bush clean and weed free. Unfortunately the proposed development would see all this work undone.

Sunshine Wattle (Acacia terminalis) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2014

Sunshine Wattle (Acacia terminalis) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2014

The fact is that there is enough space on school grounds which don’t contain bush to start development there. The proposed bush smashing can be undone with a smarter, more sustainable and less fragmenting development design. Any decrease in the destruction of Sydney sandstone woodland is huge in conserving the nature in Sydney as this biome is constantly under threat because it is situated in the most urbanised area of Australia. This is a very similar to a case to the Spring Gully threat. Both of these land clearances are proposed to be occurring within Sydney sandstone woodland, and in both instances we need to realise that we cannot negotiate the already limited pristine bushland within the Sydney region. There are always smarter and more sustainable ways of achieving development.

Pimelea curvifolia var. glabrata, a close and more common relative of Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora | Copyright Chad Beranek 2014

Pimelea curvifolia var. glabrata, a close and more common relative of Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora | Copyright Chad Beranek 2014


Overall we need to understand that we live in an age with an ever expanding population and thus very limited resources. Our strength is being the most intelligent species in the world. We need to use this intelligence and realise that unsustainable destruction of nature will only have negative compounding influences in the future. If the directors of the expansion of Manly Vale Public School can’t wake up and see just how unsustainable and unproductive the proposed development is, they will undo all the good work this school has been striving to achieve in the fronts of sustainability, the environment and the very future of the next generation of innovators and pioneers.

To help out and stay informed please visit, like this page and voice your opinion. Every voice counts, with enough of us we can call out ill-informed bad practices like this and ensure a sustainable and prosperous future for all. You can find out more information on the Wild About blog.

The video below provides more information on this bushland:

Destruction of Australia’s oldest National Park – The Royal scheduled to be downsized

The Royal National Park is one of the oldest national parks in the entire world. It was the first to receive the title of a national park and is only younger in terms of being a nature conservation area by Yosemite and Yellowstone. The Royal National Park is also one of the closest national parks to a city. This is one of Australias biggest boasting points as in almost all other countries one must travel hours to experience untouched wilderness, yet in Sydney one needs only to travel 40 minutes. This closeness to the city is also a major breakthrough for wildlife conservation as it acts a source of habitat which provides population of a large variety of animals shelter and food, and enables these populations to expand into neighboring urban suburbs. This enables Sydney to pertain a high biodiversity compared to other cities in the world.

Despite having the claim to being arguably the oldest national park in the world, and despite the paramount conservation value this amazing natural heritage area offers, the beautiful forests within the Royal National Park are still under threat of developers. Over a thousand trees are threatened to be cut down over multiple hectares of unaltered bush, many of which provide essential housing for possums, sugar gliders and birds. These hollows can’t be replaced by plantings, as it takes at least 80 years for a tree to mature enough to support a large enough hollow. The trees present in Spring Gully are very unique. The canopy mostly comprises of Red Bloodwood (Corymbia gummifera) which is a relatively common relative of the Eucalypt. However the Red Bloodwoods present in this area have formed in strange growths known as ‘mallee’, which is very rare for this species and yet is abundant at this particular site.

Ring-tailed Possum (Pseudocheirus perigrinus). One of the many tree dwellers set to loose their home in Spring Gully | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

Ring-tailed Possum (Pseudocheirus perigrinus). One of the many tree dwellers set to loose their home in Spring Gully | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

This area is also a stronghold for the vulnerable Eastern Pigmy Possum (Carcetus nanus). This adorable marsupial is susceptible to fires which are a common in the Royal due to the practice of back burning. However Spring Gully represents one of the only areas in the entire Royal National Park which has remained unburnt for a comparatively substantial amount of time. This is evident with the presence of a large Pigmy Possum population which is present in Spring Gully. This population appears to be acting as a population stronghold for this threatened species, and provides ongoing breeding which enables the population to spread from this point.

The threatened Eastern Pigmy Possum (Cercartetus nanus) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

The threatened Eastern Pigmy Possum (Cercartetus nanus) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

Two threatened frog species are also under threat from this development. The Red-crowned Toadlet (Pseudophryne australis), which occurs on the proposed site in the small trickles, and the Giant Burrowing Frog (Heleioporus australiacus) which would use the site as foraging habitat and breeding habitat. The development threatens both species as firstly, development build at the top of a slopes (as is planned) increases water volume, due to guttering, running down the slope. This results in increased water movement speeds which clear the accumulated leaf litter clumps in the tributaries that the Red-crowned Toadlets depend on for breeding. Furthermore, human disturbances have been known to always completely eliminated Giant Burrowing Frogs from areas mainly due to elimination of habitat, as this frog species has a large home range and requires pristine vegetation across their home range. That is why they are only found in large nature reserves and national parks. This development threatens to completely wipe out the Bundeena occurring population.

Giant Burrowing Frog (Heleioporus australiacus) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2015

Giant Burrowing Frog (Heleioporus australiacus) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2015

Red-crowned Toadlet (Pseudophryne australis) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

Red-crowned Toadlet (Pseudophryne australis) | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

There is one threatened snake which very likely occurs within the site boundaries. The attractive Broad-headed Snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) is one of the most threatened snakes in Australia and the Royal National Park is known to be one of their strongholds. They are a nocturnal snake and require west facing rock outcrops with lots of trees in the surrounding area. Long and behold, Spring Gully also has this particular habitat right on the site boundary. Since there has currently been no threatened surveys for nocturnal animals, which the developer should be required to employ people to do, it is unknown how abundant Broad-headed Snakes are on this site. They are a very sensitive species and will be eliminated as soon as the canopy is decimated, not to mention the increased amount of people in the area will increase the amounts of ignorant snake killings.

Hoplocephalus bungaroides

With all this biodiversity to loose, not to mention making one of Australias greatest treasures smaller still, what do we stand to gain? The developer aims to create ‘Eco-tourism’ for the area, with the installment of accommodation tents, kitchens and office. While on the surface, this may seem harmless, there are a few alarming facts which make this facade visible for what it truly is. The applicant is seeking to apply  pastoral land management to a pristine native bush. It is likely under this development plan that eventually the entire 15.5 hectares of untouched bushland will be knocked down and developed, but it wont happen instantly. The tactics most developers use is a death by a thousand cuts. First a small development, then another small development, meanwhile after each consecutive installment the biodiversity value goes down, till eventually they will argue: “Why not knock it all down for housing? There’s no threatened species here anyway…”

All in all, Eco-tourism can be great idea and can help conservation efforts if applied correctly. But if a developer is truly concerned about conservation, they will ensure to purchase a property that is already developed and does not involve the cutting down of 1000+ trees encompassed in a national park, with threatened species at stake. To stop this crime against nature from going on please visit the Spring Gully Protection website for more information and lodge your objection. The link directly to the objection form is below. We need to let the world know that our oldest relics are not compromisable.


Why are old trees so important?

Many animals use trees for habitat in Australia, with animals from all major fauna groups solely depending on them for shelter, refuge and food. Possums eat Eucalyptus leaves while birds, flying foxes and small tree-dwelling mammals feed off flower nectar of many different tree species. Trees provide shelter via hollows, which are an essential habitat feature for birds, arboreal mammals, frogs and some tree dwelling snake species. Some hollows even naturally store water which has been shown to be important drinking sources for Feather-tailed Gliders and tree frogs. Some tree species found locally around Sydney, such as the Smooth-barked Apple (Angophora costata) and the Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) are able to produce large hollows which are essential nest habitat for the Powerful Owls (Ninox strenua).


Australian Owlet Nightjar (Aegotheles cristatus): A bird which is entirely dependent on tree hollows for shelter | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016

Australian Owlet Nightjar (Aegotheles cristatus): A bird which is entirely dependent on tree hollows for shelter | Copyright Chad Beranek 2016


So where does tree age come into the picture? Tree age is important as for hollows to form a tree must be very mature. The age at which hollows to naturally form varies among tree species. For example, Blackbutt hollows start forming around 100 years old. At 140 years of age, the average Blackbutt will have numerous smaller sized hollows which are usable for small mammals and birds. For larger hollows to develop to accommodate larger animals, a Blackbutt will need to reach an age of around 210 years of age.


Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps): Require old growth trees for shelter | Copyright Chad Beranek 2015

Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps): Require old growth trees for shelter | Copyright Chad Beranek 2015


The process that occurs for hollows to form is one of natures many fascinating processes. Firstly a tree must receive some kind of damage, which occurs naturally from twigs or branches breaking off. This unprotected scar then becomes infected by fungus which proceeds to rot the wood. This fungal infection enables easy access for termites which then make a nest in the rotting wood and feast on the fungus and the lignin in the wood. Once termites have established a nest, loose bits of the wood and termite nest will dislodge and thus form a hollow. Once again it must be remembered that this process cannot happen over night and requires decades to create viable habitat hollows.



Now given all these facts, it really puts perspective on current law practices which involve trees. Given how vitally important old growth hollow bearing trees are to a huge amount of different species, including many threatened species, why does the law make it so easy for trees to be cut down? While some trees may be a hazard for property, many of these laws are being abused just so a property owner can get better water views in attempt to get better property value.


A stand of Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) coexisting fine in suburbia | Copyright Chad Beranek 2015

A stand of Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) coexisting fine in suburbia | Copyright Chad Beranek 2015


In conclusion, we must pay respect to trees and pay even more respect to elderly trees! Instead of cutting older trees down to mitigate potential property damage, first seek other potential options, such as pruning more hazardous branches, leaving the tree to stand. Also be on the lookout for illegal tree lopping which is becoming a bigger occurrence these days with our out of control property market.

At the moment, there are hundreds of trees threatened to be cut down in Centennial Park. Heritage listed figs which line the streets are at risk of the new light rail that is proprosed. To find out how you can make a difference please visit Saving Sydneys Trees, and attend the protest on the 1st of May!